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فیزیک - آینه های كروی (مقعر ، محدب)‏
 
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مدیر وبلاگ : محمد خلیلی زاده
نظرسنجی
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شكل زیر، قطعه ای از یك كره را نشان می ‏دهد. اگر سطح این قطعه كروی نقره اندود شود، آینه ‏كروی به وجود می آید.

 آینه های كروی ( مقعر ، محدب )‏

 آینه کروی که از طرف گــود(سطح داخلی كره)، نقره اندود باشد آینه مقـعـریا كاو‏‏ و اگر از طرف برآمده (سطح خارجی كره) نقره اندود باشد، آینه محدب یا كوژ نامیده می شود.‏

یك اشتباه رایج !‏

‏ گاهی به سطح فلزی و براق آینه ها، سطح جیوه ای ( ! ! ! ) گفته می شود. این مطلب اشتباه ‏است. جیوه فلزی است كه در دمای معمول مایع است و اگر پشت آینه جیوه ای بود، به یك سمت ‏سرازیر می شد و می ریخت!سطح فلزی اغلب آینه های معمولی، نقره است.‏

 

شكل زیر نماد یك آینه محدب ( سمت راست ) و یك آینه مقعر (سمت چپ ) را نشان می دهد. ‏هر یك از آن ها ، قسمتی از یك سطح كروی است. مركز این كره، مركز آینه (‏C‏) و شعاع این كره ، ‏شعاع آینه (‏r‏) و خطی كه از مركز می گذرد و آینه را قطع می كند، محور آینه نامیده می شود.‏

آینه های كروی ( مقعر ، محدب )‏

 

شكل زیر، نحوه بازتاب دسته پرتوهای موازی محور آینه های كروی را نشان می دهد. این رفتار ‏آینه های كروی، خاصیت كانونی نامیده می شود.‏

آینه های كروی ( مقعر ، محدب )‏

 در صورتی كه پرتوهایی موازی محور آینه، به یك آینه مقـعـر بتابند، پرتو های بازتاب شده، به ‏صورت همگرا بوده و از نقطه ای به نام كانون ( ‏F‏ ) می گذرند.

در صورتی كه پرتوهایی موازی محور آینه، به یك آینه محدب بتابند، پرتو های بازتاب شده، به ‏صورت واگـرا بوده و امتداد آن ها از كانون ( ‏F‏ ) می گذرد.‏ 

كانون روی محور آینه و در وسط فاصله مركز تا آینه قرار دارد. فاصله كانون تا آینه، فاصله ‏كانونی ( ‏f‏ ) نام دارد. بنابراین: ‏

فاصله كانونی، نصف شعاع آینه است.‏

f = R/2  





نوع مطلب : آینه، 
برچسب ها :
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